Part one

*MAIN PRINCIPLES *

### IV. PRINCIPLES TO CONSTRUCT AZERBAIJANI MODES

*A. The main modes*

A scale without definite functional relations of its grades
remains a scale. But when one of the grades takes the position of a
tonic, the functional position of other grades immediately becomes defined
and the scale turns into a mode.

In order to form the main Azerbaijan mode "Rast", one has
to build a tetrachord from any tone on the formula 1 - 1 - 1/2. Then
this tetrachord should be combined with an equal tetrachord from above
and below by the first way of combination (conjoint one). In the scale
acquired in this way the first grade of the medial tetrachord is called
"maye". Its function is the tonic of the mode, for example,
mode "Rast" with "maye" do of the first octave:

Mode "Rast" with maye mi flat of the first octave:

In order to form the main Azerbaijan mode "Shur", it is necessary
to build a tetrachord on the formula 1 - 1/2 - 1. The first grade of
this tetrachord will be the maye of "Shur". Then it is necessary
to combine it with one equal tetrachord from above and one from below
by the first way of combination (conjoint one). For example the mode
"Shur" with maye re of the first octave:

Mode "Shur" with maye fa sharp of the first octave:

In order to form the main Azerbaijan mode "Segah",
it is necessary to build a tetrachord on the formula 1/2 - 1 - 1. The
first grade of this tetrachord will be maye of the mode "Segah".
Then it is necessary to combine it with an equal tetrachord from above
and one from below by the first way of combination, for example, the
mode "Segah" with maye mi of the first octave:

Mode "Segah" with maye do sharps of the first octave:

In order to form the main Azerbaijan mode "Shushtar", it is
necessary to build a diminished tetrachord on the formula 1/2 - 1 -
1/2 and combine it with an equal tetrachord from above and below by
the second way of combination (mixed one - interval of the increased
second), for example, as the mode "Shushtar" with maye la
of the first octave:

Mode "Shushtar" with maye sol of the first octave:

In order to form the main Azerbaijan mode "Chargah",
it is necessary to build a tetrachord on the formula 1/2 - 1^{1}/_{2}
- 1/2. The first grade of this tetrachord will be the "maye"
of the mode. Then it must be combined with equal tetrachords: from above-by
second method of combination (mixed one - interval of major second),
from below-by the first way of combination (conjoint one).

Mode "Chargah" with "maye" do of the
first octave:

Mode "Chargah" with maye fa of the first octave:

In order to form the main Azerbaijan mode "Bayati-Shiraz",
it is necessary to build a tetrachord on the formula 1 - 1 - 1/2. The
last (fourth) grade of this tetrachord will be the maye of the mode.
Then it is necessary to combine this tetrachord with an equal tetrachord
by the third method of combination (using an intermediate semitone).

Mode "Bayati-Shiraz" with "maye" do
of the first octave:

Mode "Bayati-Shiraz" with maye re of the first
octave:

In order to form the main mode "Humayun", it is necessary
to build a tetrachord on the formula 1/2 -11/2-1/2 and combine it with
an equal tetrachord from above by the fourth way of combination (using
an intermediate tone). This mode has two Mayes: first of them is the
fourth grade of the lower tetrachord, the second is the upper tetrachord.

Mode "Humayun" with maye do and la of the first octave:

Mode "Homerun" with maye re and si of the first octave:

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